Normotension, Prehypertension, and Hypertension in Urban Middle-Class Subjects in India: Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

We conducted a multisite study to determine the prevalence and determinants of normotension, prehypertension, and hypertension, and awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among urban middle-class subjects in India.

METHODS

We evaluated 6,106 middle-class urban subjects (men 3,371; women, 2,735; response rate, 62%) in 11 cities for sociodemographic and biological factors. The subjects were classified as having normotension (BP < 120/80), prehypertension (BP 120–139/80–89), and hypertension (documented or BP ≥ 140/90). The prevalence of other cardiovascular risk factors was determined and associations evaluated through logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS

The age-adjusted prevalences in men and women of normotension were 26.7% and 39.1%, of prehypertension 40.2% and 30.1%, and of hypertension 32.5% and 30.4%, respectively. The prevalence of normotension declined with age whereas that of hypertension increased (P-trend < 0.01). A significant association of normotension was found with younger age, low dietary fat intake, lower use of tobacco, and low obesity (P < 0.05). The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome was higher in the groups with prehypertension and hypertension than in the group with normotension (age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) 2.0–5.0, P < 0.001). The prevalences in men and women, respectively, of two or more risk factors were 11.1% and 6.4% in the group with normotension, 25.1% and 23.3% in the group with prehypertension, and 38.3% and 39.1% in the group with hypertension (P < 0.01). Awareness of hypertension in the study population was in 55.3%; 36.5% of the hypertensive group were receiving treatment for hypertension, and 28.2% of this group had a controlled BP (< 140/90mm Hg).

CONCLUSIONS

The study found a low prevalence of normotension and high prevalence of hypertension in middle-class urban Asian Indians. Significant associations of hypertension were found with age, dietary fat, consumption of fruits and vegetables, smoking, and obesity. Normotensive individuals had a lower prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors than did members of the prehypertensive or hypertensive groups. Half of the hypertensive group were aware of having hypertension, a third were receiving treatment for it, and quarter had a controlled BP.

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