Associations Between Nocturnal Blood Pressure Dipping and the Metabolic Syndrome in High- Vs. Low-Acculturated Mexican American Women

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Abstract

BACKGROUND

Less nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping has been associated with greater odds for the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a constellation of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Little work has examined this association in Hispanics, who have elevated rates of MetS, or investigated differences in this relationship by level of acculturation. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between BP dipping and MetS in Hispanic women and to determine if this association is moderated by acculturation status.

METHODS

Two hundred eighty-six Mexican American women underwent assessment of MetS components (BP, waist circumference, fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides) and completed a 36-hour ambulatory BP monitoring protocol, during which systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP readings were obtained. Nocturnal BP dipping was calculated as the percentage difference between average daytime and nighttime BP. Acculturation was defined by the language (Spanish, English) in which participants preferred to complete study instruments.

RESULTS

Although no significant main effects for BP dipping or acculturation emerged for MetS, the SBP dipping by acculturation interaction was significantly related to MetS (P < 0.01). Simple slope analyses revealed that less SBP dipping related to greater odds of MetS in high-acculturated women, but SBP dipping and MetS were unrelated in low-acculturated women.

CONCLUSIONS

The strength of the association between BP dipping and CVD risk (as measured by MetS) appears to vary by acculturation in Hispanic women. Future studies should explore mechanisms behind the BP dipping and CVD risk association and relevant modifying factors.

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