Relationship Between Prehypertension/Hypertension and Periodontal Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study

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Abstract

BACKGROUND

Most cross-sectional studies have found a significant positive relationship between periodontal disease and prehypertension/hypertension. However, these studies had limitations and there are few prospective cohort studies in young adults. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate whether periodontal disease was related to prehypertension/hypertension in Japanese university students.

METHODS

Students (n = 2,588), who underwent health examinations before entering university and before graduation, were included in the analysis. The association between periodontal disease such as the percentage of bleeding on probing (BOP) and community periodontal index (CPI) scores, and change in blood pressure status was determined.

RESULTS

At the reexamination, the numbers of participants with prehypertension (systolic blood pressure 120–139mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure 80–89mm Hg) and hypertension (≥140/90mm Hg) were 882 (34.1%) and 109 (4.2%), respectively. In a logistic regression model, the risk of hypertension was significantly associated with male (odds ratio (OR): 6.31; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.63–15.13; P < 0.001), no habitual physical activity at baseline (OR: 2.90; 95% CI: 1.56–5.38; P < 0.01) and periodontal disease defined as the presence of both probing pocket depth (PPD) ≥ 4mm and BOP ≥ 30% at baseline (OR: 2.74; 95% CI: 1.19–6.29; P = 0.02) in participants with prehypertension at baseline. On the other hand, the risk of prehypertension was not associated with presence of periodontal disease (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.51–1.70; P = 0.82).

CONCLUSION

In the short-term prospective cohort study, a significant association between presence of periodontal disease and hypertension was observed in Japanese university students.

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