Aortic Pulse Pressure Amplification Imputed From Simple Clinical Measures Adds to the Ability of Brachial Pressure to Predict Survival

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Although aortic-to-brachial pulse pressure amplification (PPamp) may offer prognostic information beyond brachial blood pressure (BP), this approach is limited in resource-limited settings. We aimed to derive an equation to impute central aortic PP (PPc) from simple clinical measures and assess whether imputed PPamp adds to the ability of brachial BP to predict mortality.


An imputation equation for PPc, incorporating brachial PP, age, mean arterial pressure, and pulse rate, was identified from multivariate modeling of the factors associated with radial applanation tonometry-derived (measured) PPc in 1,179 community participants and validated in a clinical sample of 351 patients. We applied the equation to ambulatory awake BP and pulse rate values in a separate group of 4,796 patients referred for ambulatory monitoring and evaluated the impact on all-cause mortality.


Imputed PPc values closely approximated measured PPc (r2 = 0.96, mean difference ± (2 × SD) = 1.4±6.2mm Hg). In adjusted Cox proportional models including adjustments for awake brachial PP during 47,111 person-years of follow-up, where 648 patients died, hazards ratio for all-cause mortality per SD of awake PPamp was 0.79 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68–0.93, P < 0.005). The hazards ratio for brachial PP with (1.49, CI = 1.36–1.64, P < 0.0001) or without (1.46, CI = 1.35–1.59, P < 0.0001) PPamp in the model was similar. Awake PPamp also predicted survival independent of awake brachial systolic BP (P < 0.0001).


PPc imputed from simple clinical assessments closely approximates measured PPc. PPamp derived from imputed PPc adds to the ability of brachial BP to predict survival. In resource-limited settings, an imputation equation may be employed to approximate aortic BP and enhance risk prediction.

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