Orthostatic Circulatory Disorders: From Nosology to Nuts and Bolts

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When patients complain of altered consciousness or discomfort in the upright posture, either relieved by recumbency or culminating in syncope, physicians may find themselves baffled. There is a wide variety of disorders that cause abnormal regulation of blood pressure and pulse rate in the upright posture. The aim of this focused review is 3-fold. First, to offer a classification (nosology) of these disorders; second, to illuminate the mechanisms that underlie them; and third, to assist the physician in the practical aspects of diagnosis of adult orthostatic hypotension, by extending clinical skills with readily available office technology.

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