Influence of Mid-Trimester Amniotic Fluid on Endogenous and Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Responses of Mononuclear Lymphoid Cells

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Witkin SS, Chervenak J, Bongiovanni AM, Herway C, Linhares IM, Skupski D. Influence of mid-trimester amniotic fluid on endogenous and lipopolysaccharide-mediated responses of mononuclear lymphoid cells. Am J Reprod Immunol 2012; 67: 28–33


We evaluated the influence of amniotic fluid (AF) on immune mediator production by mononuclear leukocytes.

Method of study

Thirty mid-gestation AFs were incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Supernatants were tested for interleukin (IL) – 6, 10, 12, 23, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1.


Endogenous mediator production was minimal or non-detectable. AF stimulated endogenous MCP-1, IL-6 and TNF-α release. In the presence of LPS, production of MCP-1 and IL-10 by PBMCs was enhanced eight- to ninefold by AF. Release of IL-6 and IL-23 was enhanced less than twofold by the addition of AF while TNF-α production was unchanged. AF-stimulated mediator production was similar irrespective of pregnancy outcome.


Selective AF stimulation of LPS-mediated MCP-1 and IL-10 release may be a mechanism to promote antibody production and the influx of phagocytic cells to engulf pathogens while downregulating the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

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