In VitroSecretion Profile of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and of Human Beta-Defensins (HBD)-1, HBD-2, and HBD-3 from Human Chorioamniotic Membranes After Selective Stimulation withGardnerella vaginalis

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Zaga-Clavellina V, Martha RV-M, Flores-Espinosa P. In vitro secretion profile of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and of human beta-defensins (HBD)-1, HBD-2, and HBD-3 from human chorioamniotic membranes after selective stimulation with Gardnerella vaginalis. Am J Reprod Immunol 2012; 67: 34–43


Preterm labor associated with infection is a major clinical condition; in this work, we analyze the response of human chorioamniotic membranes stimulated with Gardnerella vaginalis.

Method of study

Using a two-compartment experimental model, 1 × 106 CFU/mL of G. vaginalis were added to either the amnion or choriodecidua face or to both. Concentrations of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6, as well as human beta defensins (HBD) 1-3 were quantified by ELISA.


In comparison with control conditions and regardless of the stimulation modality, IL-1β and IL-6 increased 4-fold and 28-fold, respectively, in the choriodecidual compartment. HBD-1 increased 2-fold mainly in the amniotic compartment when the stimulus was applied directly to this region. HBD-2 and HBD-3 increased an average of 2- and 8-fold, respectively, in the choriodecidual region.


Stimulation with G. vaginalis induced a tissue-specific secretion profile of 1L-1β, IL-6, and HBD 1-3 in the chorioamniotic membranes.

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