Role of Paternal Antigen-Specific Treg Cells in Successful Implantation

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Maternal lymphocytes recognize fetal antigens, so tolerance is necessary to prevent rejection. Seminal plasma is important for induction of paternal antigen-specific Treg cells in the uterine draining lymph nodes and the pregnant uterus. Elimination of Treg cells during implantation or early pregnancy induces implantation failure or fetal resorption in mice. Immunosuppressive therapy with an anti-TNF antibody or the immunosuppressive agent tacrolimus improves the pregnancy rate in women with repeated implantation failure and recurrent pregnancy loss of unknown etiology, suggesting that Treg cells play an essential role in successful implantation and pregnancy in humans.

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