Cell Signaling Pathways Involved During Invasion and Syncytialization of Trophoblast Cells

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Abstract

Implantation involves an extensive cross talk between the trophoblast cells and the receptive endometrium through embryonic as well as endometrial-derived factors that regulate the invasion and migration of trophoblast cells and also syncytia formation. Any aberration in this highly regulated process may lead to pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, or even pregnancy failure. How various cytokines and growth factors act by activating various cell signaling pathways leading to the expression of the effector molecules have been reviewed, which control invasion and migration of trophoblast cells and syncytialization. The gaps in our current understanding of the various signaling pathways, activated by different cytokines/growth factors, their possible cross talk for optimized effector function(s), and future prospects in this field have been discussed.

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