This study aimed to identify social-psychological predictors of pro-environmental consumption intention in rural China. To this end, a proposed conceptual model was tested by analyzing the survey data derived from 972 rural respondents in Jiangxi province in south-eastern China. Results showed that the endorsement of traditional cultures (man–nature orientation and collectivism) was linked with pro-environmental consumption behaviuor, but was mediated by intentions. Personal attitudes (environmental cognition and environmental affect) and reference groups influenced both intention and behaviour. The results also provided good evidence of the intention–behaviour relationship. These findings provided a better understanding of the process in which Chinese rural residents developed their pro-environmental consumption behaviours.