Sensory processing is a personal trait that can contribute to challenging behavior. Protective factors, such as resiliency, can support children in managing their behavior, yet little research has addressed the contribution of sensory processing to protective factors. Therefore, in this cross-sectional study we aimed to determine the contribution of sensory processing (using the Sensory Profile-2) to challenging behavior and protective factors (using the Behavior Assessment System for Children, 2nd ed., Parent Rating Scales) in a sample of 51 children ages 6–11 yr from the general U.S. population. The results indicated that sensory avoiding predicts externalizing behaviors, depression, resiliency, and adaptability. In addition, sensory seeking is related to depression and resiliency, whereas sensory sensitivity is related to externalizing behaviors. Implications for occupational therapy research and practice are discussed.