Comparison of Children With and Without ADHD on a New Pictorial Self-Assessment of Executive Functions

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We examined the Pictorial Interview of Children's Metacognition and Executive Functions' (PIC–ME's) reliability and validity, targeting children's appraisal of their executive function (EF) in daily life.


One hundred children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 44 typically developing children (ages 5–10 yr) completed the PIC–ME. Parents completed the PIC–ME and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF).


Cronbach's α for the child PIC–ME was .914. A high correlation was found between the parent PIC–ME total and the BRIEF (r = .724). Comparisons between groups revealed significant differences on the parent PIC–ME (p < .0001) but none on the child PIC–ME. Children with ADHD identified a median of eight EF challenges they wanted to set as treatment goals.


Results support the PIC–ME's initial reliability and validity among children with ADHD. Children were able to identify several EF challenges and engage in goal setting.

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