Time to Adjust to Changes in Ventilation Settings Varies Significantly between Different T-Piece Resuscitators, Self-Inflating Bags, and Manometer Equipped Self-Inflating Bags

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Resuscitation guidelines give no preference over use of self-inflating bags (SIBs) or T-piece resuscitators (TPR) for manual neonatal ventilation. We speculated that devices would differ significantly regarding time required to adjust to changed ventilation settings.

Study Design

This was a laboratory study. Time to adjust from baseline peak inflation pressure (PIP) (20 cmH2O) to target PIP (25 and 40 cmH2O), ability to adhere to predefined ventilation settings (PIP, PEEP, and inflation rate [IR]), and the variability within and between operators were assessed for a SIB without manometer, SIB with manometer (SIBM), and two TPRs.


Adjustment time was significantly longer with TPRs, compared with SIB and SIBM. The SIBM and TPRs were < 5% (median) off target PIP, and the SIB was 14% off target PIP. Significant variability between operators (interquartile range [IQR]: 71%) was seen with SIBs.


PIP adjustment takes longer with TPRs, compared with SIB/SIBM. TPRs and SIBM allow satisfactory adherence to ventilation parameters. SIBs should only be used with manometer attached.

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