Preeclampsia and Future Risk for Maternal Ophthalmic Complications

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Abstract

Objective

To investigate whether patients with a history of preeclampsia have an increased risk of long-term ophthalmic complications.

Study Design

A population-based study comparing the incidence of long-term maternal ophthalmic complications in a cohort of women with and without a history of preeclampsia.

Results

During the study period, a total of 103,183 deliveries met the inclusion criteria; 8.1% (n = 8,324) occurred in patients with a diagnosis of preeclampsia during at least one of their pregnancies. Patients with preeclampsia had a significantly higher incidence of long-term ophthalmic morbidity such as diabetic retinopathy and retinal detachment. In addition, a positive linear correlation was found between the severity of preeclampsia and the prevalence of future ophthalmic morbidities (0.3 vs. 0.5 vs. 2.2%, respectively). Kaplan-Meier survival curve indicated that women with preeclampsia had higher rates of total ophthalmic morbidity (0.2 vs. 0.4%, for no preeclampsia and with preeclampsia, respectively; odds ratio = 2.06, 95% confidence interval: 1.42–2.99; p < 0.001). In a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusted for confounders, a history of preeclampsia remained independently associated with ophthalmic complications.

Conclusion

Preeclampsia is an independent risk factor for long-term maternal ophthalmic morbidity, specifically diabetic retinopathy and retinal detachment. This risk is more substantial depending on the severity of the disease.

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