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Spontaneous preterm deliveries (PTDs) have been consistently associated with maternal vascular complications. We aimed to investigate an association between PTD and subsequent maternal ophthalmic morbidity.In this population-based cohort study, we included all singleton deliveries occurring between 1988 and 2013. We excluded women with known ophthalmic disease. The exposure was at least one pregnancy with PTD. Outcomes included different maternal ophthalmic morbidity. The cumulative incidence and adjusted hazard ratios were assessed using a Kaplan-Meier survival curve and Cox hazards models.Of the 105,018 patients included, 17,600 (16.7%) delivered preterm. Patients with a history of PTD (both induced and spontaneous) had higher rates of ophthalmic complications (odds ratio [OR]: 2.12; confidence interval [CI]: 1.6–2.7; p < 0.001), specifically diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma (OR: 4.79 and 2.48, respectively). A linear association was found between the number of previous PTDs and ophthalmic complications (0.2% for no PTD; 0.4% for one PTD; 0.6% for two or more PTDs; p < 0.001) and for early and late PTD (p < 0.001). A Cox model revealed an independent association between PTD and ophthalmic complications (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.6–2.9).A history of PTD is an independent risk factor for ophthalmic morbidity.