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The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with the development of septic pelvic thrombophlebitis (SPT).This is a secondary case-control study of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit Network Cesarean Registry. SPT was defined as suspected infectious thrombosis of the pelvic veins, often persistent febrile illness in the setting of antibiotic therapy for endometritis. Women with SPT were compared with those without SPT using descriptive statistics. Logistic regression models estimated the association between selected risk factors and SPT.Of 73,087 women in the cohort, 89 (0.1%) developed SPT. Women with SPT were more likely to be < 20 years old (33.7 vs. 10.6%, p < 0.001), black race (58.4 vs. 29.1%, p < 0.001), and nulliparous (51.1 vs. 23.3%, p < 0.001). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (32.6 vs. 11.8%, p < 0.001) and multiple gestation (12.5 vs. 7.4%, p = 0.03) were also more common in women with SPT. In the multivariable regression model, maternal age < 20, black race, multiple gestation, and preeclampsia were all significantly associated with increased odds of SPT (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.96, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22, 3.14; aOR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.68, 4.02; aOR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.13, 3.88; aOR: 2.91, 95% CI: 1.86, 4.57).SPT is a rare pregnancy complication. Our analysis confirmed known risk factors (e.g., infections, cesarean delivery), and identified novel ones, including black race, young age, preeclampsia, and multiple gestation.