Morbidity Associated with Fetal Macrosomia among Women with Diabetes Mellitus

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Abstract

Objective

This article aims to compare the composite maternal and neonatal morbidities (CMM and CNM, respectively) between macrosomic (≥4,000 g) and nonmacrosomic (<4,000 g) newborns among women with diabetes mellitus (DM).

Methods

Maternal demographic and peripartum outcome data (N = 1,260) were collected from a retrospective cohort. CMM included chorioamnionitis/endometritis, wound infection, shoulder dystocia, eclampsia, pulmonary edema, admission for hypoglycemia, 3rd/4th degree perineal laceration, and death. CNM included 5-minute Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity and Respiration (APGAR) score of <4, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, respiratory distress syndrome, mechanical ventilation, intraventricular hemorrhage grade III/IV, necrotizing enterocolitis stage II/III, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, sepsis, seizures, hyperbilirubinemia, and death. Multivariable Poisson regression models with robust error variance were used to calculate adjusted relative risk (aRR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).

Results

The study population consisted of 967 subjects, including 854 (88.3%) nonmacrosomic and 113 (11.7%) macrosomic infants. After adjustment, the risk of CMM was higher among macrosomic deliveries (aRR = 4.08, 95% CI = 2.45–6.80). The risk of CNM was also higher among macrosomic deliveries (aRR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.39–2.24). Macrosomia was associated with an increased risk in NICU admission, hypoglycemia, and hyperbilirubinemia.

Conclusion

Among DM deliveries, macrosomia was associated with a fourfold higher risk of CMM and almost twofold higher risk of CNM.

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