Because Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) experience high rates of both HIV and incarceration relative to other groups, the various stages of criminal justice involvement may serve as important intervention points for addressing HIV and related conditions in this group. Although systematic reviews of HIV interventions targeting MSM in general and BMSM in particular exist, no review has explored the range and impact of HIV, sexually transmitted infection (STI), and substance use prevention and care continuum interventions focused on criminal justice-involved (CJI) populations.Objectives
To describe the range and impact of published HIV, STI, and related substance use interventions for US-based CJI populations and to understand their relevance for BMSM.Search Methods
We conducted systematic searches in the following databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane, CINAHL, and PsycINFO, covering the period preceding December 1, 2016.Selection Criteria
We selected articles in scientific publications involving quantitative findings for studies of US-based interventions that focused on CJI individuals, with outcomes related to sexual or substance use risk behaviors, HIV, or STIs. We excluded studies if they provided no demographic information, had minimal representation of the population of interest (< 30 African American or Black male or transgender participants), had study populations limited to those aged younger than 18 years, or were limited to evaluations of preexisting programs.Data Collection and Analysis
We abstracted data from these articles on study design; years covered; study location; participant number, demographics, and sexual orientation (if available); criminal justice setting or type; health condition; targeted outcomes; and key findings. We scored studies by using the Downs and Black quality and bias assessment. We conducted linear regression to examine changes in study quality by publication year.Main Results
Fifty-eight articles met inclusion criteria, including 8 (13.8%) modeling or cost-effectiveness studies and 13 (22.4%) randomized controlled trials. Just 3 studies (5.2%) focused on sexual or gender minorities, with only 1 focused on BMSM. In most studies (n = 36; 62.1%), however, more than 50% of participants were Black. The most common intervention addressed screening, including 20 empirical studies and 7 modeling studies. Education-focused interventions were also common (n = 15) and usually employed didactic rather than skill-building approaches. They were more likely to demonstrate increases in HIV testing, knowledge, and condom-use intentions than reductions in sex- and drug-risk behaviors. Screening programs consistently indicated cost-effectiveness, including with BMSM. Care continuum interventions for people living with HIV showed mixed results; just 3 involved randomized controlled trials, and these interventions did not show significant differences compared with control conditions. A minority of programs targeted non-custody-based CJI populations, despite their constituting a majority of the CJI population at any given time.Authors’ Conclusions
Screening CJI populations for HIV and other STIs is effective and cost-efficient and holds promise for reducing HIV in BMSM. Education-based and care provision interventions also hold promise for addressing HIV, STIs, mental health, and substance use in CJI populations. Additional empirical and modeling studies and results specific to sexual minorities are needed; their paucity represents a disparity in how HIV is addressed.Public Health Implications
HIV and STI screening programs focused on CJI populations should be a priority for reducing HIV risk and numbers of undiagnosed infections among BMSM. Funding agencies and public health leaders should prioritize research to improve the knowledge base regarding which care continuum intervention approaches are most effective for BMSM with criminal justice involvement. Developments in modeling approaches could allow researchers to simulate the impacts and costs of criminal justice involvement-related interventions that might otherwise be cost, time, or ethically prohibitive to study empirically.