ADCYAP1R1and Asthma in Puerto Rican Children

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Epigenetic and/or genetic variation in the gene encoding the receptor for adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide 1 (ADCYAP1R1) has been linked to post-traumatic stress disorder in adults and anxiety in children. Psychosocial stress has been linked to asthma morbidity in Puerto Rican children.


To examine whether epigenetic or genetic variation inADCYAP1R1is associated with childhood asthma in Puerto Ricans.


We conducted a case-control study of 516 children ages 6-14 years living in San Juan, Puerto Rico. We assessed methylation at a CpG site in the promoter ofADCYAP1R1(cg11218385) using a pyrosequencing assay in DNA from white blood cells. We tested whether cg11218385 methylation (range, 0.4-6.1%) is associated with asthma using logistic regression. We also examined whether exposure to violence (assessed by the Exposure to Violence [ETV] Scale in children 9 yr and older) is associated with cg11218385 methylation (using linear regression) or asthma (using logistic regression). Logistic regression was used to test for association between a single nucleotide polymorphism inADCYAP1R1(rs2267735) and asthma under an additive model. All multivariate models were adjusted for age, sex, household income, and principal components.

Measurements and Main Results:

Each 1% increment in cg11218385 methylation was associated with increased odds of asthma (adjusted odds ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.6;P= 0.03). Among children 9 years and older, exposure to violence was associated with cg11218385 methylation. The C allele of single nucleotide polymorphism rs2267735 was significantly associated with increased odds of asthma (adjusted odds ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.67;P= 0.03).


Epigenetic and genetic variants inADCYAP1R1are associated with asthma in Puerto Rican children.

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