|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Mesenchymal stem cells secrete paracrine factors that can regulate lung permeability and decrease inflammation, making it a potentially attractive therapy for acute lung injury. However, concerns exist whether mesenchymal stem cells' immunomodulatory properties may have detrimental effects if targeted toward infectious causes of lung injury.Therefore, we tested the effect of mesenchymal stem cells on lung fluid balance, acute inflammation, and bacterial clearance.We developed anEscherichia colipneumonia model in ourex vivoperfused human lung to test the therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cells on bacterial-induced acute lung injury.Clinical-grade human mesenchymal stem cells restored alveolar fluid clearance to a normal level, decreased inflammation, and were associated with increased bacterial killing and reduced bacteremia, in part through increased alveolar macrophage phagocytosis and secretion of antimicrobial factors. Keratinocyte growth factor, a soluble factor secreted by mesenchymal stem cells, duplicated most of the antimicrobial effects. In subsequentin vitrostudies, we discovered that human monocytes expressed the keratinocyte growth factor receptor, and that keratinocyte growth factor decreased apoptosis of human monocytes through AKT phosphorylation, an effect that increased bacterial clearance. Inhibition of keratinocyte growth factor by a neutralizing antibody reduced the antimicrobial effects of mesenchymal stem cells in theex vivoperfused human lung and monocytes grownin vitroinjured withE. colibacteria.InE. coli-injured human lungs, mesenchymal stem cells restored alveolar fluid clearance, reduced inflammation, and exerted antimicrobial activity, in part through keratinocyte growth factor secretion.