Various in vitro, animal, and limited human adult studies suggest a profound inhibitory effect of inflammation and disease on cytochrome P-450 3A (CYP3A)-mediated drug metabolism. Studies showing this relationship in critically ill patients are lacking, whereas clearance of many CYP3A drug substrates may be decreased, potentially leading to toxicity.Objectives:
To prospectively study the relationship between inflammation, organ failure, and midazolam clearance as a validated marker of CYP3A-mediated drug metabolism in critically ill children.Methods:
From 83 critically ill children (median age, 5.1 mo [range, 0.02-202 mo]), midazolam plasma (n = 532), cytokine (e.g., IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels; organ dysfunction scores (Pediatric Risk of Mortality II, Pediatric Index of Mortality 2, Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction); and number of failing organs were prospectively collected. A population pharmacokinetic model to study the impact of inflammation and organ failure on midazolam pharmacokinetics was developed using NONMEM 7.3.Measurements and Main Results:
In a two-compartmental pharmacokinetic model, body weight was the most significant covariate for clearance and volume of distribution. CRP and organ failure were significantly associated with clearance (P < 0.01), explaining both interindividual and interoccasional variability. In simulations, a CRP of 300 mg/L was associated with a 65% lower clearance compared with 10 mg/L, and three failing organs were associated with a 35% lower clearance compared with one failing organ.Conclusions:
Inflammation and organ failure strongly reduce midazolam clearance, a surrogate marker of CYP3A-mediated drug metabolism, in critically ill children. Hence, critically ill patients receiving CYP3A substrate drugs may be at risk of increased drug levels and associated toxicity.