1Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts2Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts3National Center for Communicable Diseases, Ministry of Health, Mongolia National Center for Communicable Diseases Campus, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia; and4Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom
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Rationale:Existing trials of adjunctive vitamin D in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) are variously limited by small sample sizes, inadequate dosing regimens, and high baseline vitamin D status among participants. Comprehensive analyses of the effects of genetic variation in the vitamin D pathway on response to vitamin D supplementation are lacking.Objectives:To determine the effect of high-dose vitamin D3 on response to antimicrobial therapy for PTB and to evaluate the influence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in vitamin D pathway genes on response to adjunctive vitamin D3.Methods:We conducted a clinical trial in 390 adults with PTB in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, who were randomized to receive four biweekly doses of 3.5 mg (140,000 IU) vitamin D3 (n = 190) or placebo (n = 200) during intensive-phase antituberculosis treatment.Measurements and Main Results:The intervention elevated 8-week serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (154.5 nmol/L vs. 15.2 nmol/L in active vs. placebo arms, respectively; 95% confidence interval for difference, 125.9-154.7 nmol/L; P < 0.001) but did not influence time to sputum culture conversion overall (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-1.36; P = 0.48). Adjunctive vitamin D3 accelerated sputum culture conversion in patients with one or more minor alleles for SNPs in genes encoding the vitamin D receptor (rs4334089, rs11568820) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1: rs4646536) (adjusted hazard ratio ≥ 1.47; P for interaction ≤ 0.02).Conclusions:Vitamin D3 did not influence time to sputum culture conversion in the study population overall. Effects of the intervention were modified by SNPs in VDR and CYP27B1.Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01657656).