Dysregulated activation of the inflammasome-caspase-1-IL-1β axis elicits damaging hyperinflammation during critical illnesses, such as pneumonia and sepsis. However, in critical illness models of Salmonella infection, burn, or shock, caspase-1 inhibition worsens outcomes. These paradoxical effects suggest that caspase-1 drives novel protective responses. Whether the protective effects of caspase-1 activation involve canonical immune cell and/or nonimmune cell responses is unknown. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that, in addition to its recognized proinflammatory function, caspase-1 initiates protective stress responses in nonimmune cells. In vivo, lung epithelial and endothelial barrier function and inflammation were assessed in mice infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence or absence of a caspase-1 inhibitor. Lung endothelial barrier function was assessed ex vivo in isolated, perfused rat lungs infected with P. aeruginosa in the presence or absence of a caspase-1 inhibitor. Endothelial barrier function during P. aeruginosa infection was assessed in vitro in cultured rat wild-type pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) or recombinant PMVECs engineered to decrease caspase-1 expression. We demonstrated in vivo that caspase-1 inhibition in P. aeruginosa-infected mice ameliorated hyperinflammation, but, counterintuitively, increased pulmonary edema. Ex vivo, caspase-1 inhibition increased pulmonary permeability in P. aeruginosa-infected isolated rat lungs. To uncouple caspase-1 from its canonical inflammatory role, we used cultured rat PMVECs in vitro and discovered that genetic knockdown of caspase-1 accelerated P. aeruginosa-induced barrier disruption. In conclusion, caspase-1 is a sentinel stress-response regulator that initiates proinflammatory responses and also initiates novel response(s) to protect PMVEC barrier function during pneumonia.