Endothelial Monocyte-Activating Polypeptide II Mediates Macrophage Migration in the Development of Hyperoxia-Induced Lung Disease of Prematurity

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Abstract

Myeloid cells are key factors in the progression of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) pathogenesis. Endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide II (EMAP II) mediates myeloid cell trafficking. The origin and physiological mechanism by which EMAP II affects pathogenesis in BPD is unknown. The objective was to determine the functional consequences of elevated EMAP II levels in the pathogenesis of murine BPD and to investigate EMAP II neutralization as a therapeutic strategy. Three neonatal mouse models were used: (1) BPD (hyperoxia), (2) EMAP II delivery, and (3) BPD with neutralizing EMAP II antibody treatments. Chemokinic function of EMAP II and its neutralization were assessed by migration in vitro and in vivo. We determined the location of EMAP II by immunohistochemistry, pulmonary proinflammatory and chemotactic gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting, lung outcome by pulmonary function testing and histological analysis, and right ventricular hypertrophy by Fulton's Index. In BPD, EMAP II initially is a bronchial club-cell-specific protein-derived factor that later is expressed in galectin-3+ macrophages as BPD progresses. Continuous elevated expression corroborates with baboon and human BPD. Prolonged elevation of EMAP II levels recruits galectin-3+ macrophages, which is followed by an inflammatory state that resembles a severe BPD phenotype characterized by decreased pulmonary compliance, arrested alveolar development, and signs of pulmonary hypertension. In vivo pharmacological EMAP II inhibition suppressed proinflammatory genes Tnfa, Il6, and Il1b and chemotactic genes Ccl2 and Ccl9 and reversed the severe BPD phenotype. EMAP II is sufficient to induce macrophage recruitment, worsens BPD progression, and represents a targetable mechanism of BPD development.

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