Cigarette Smoking Impairs the Bioenergetic Immune Response toMycobacterium tuberculosisInfection

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Abstract

Smoking is a major risk factor driving the tuberculosis epidemic, and smokers' alveolar macrophages (AM) demonstrate significant immune defects after infection. Recently, macrophage glycolytic reprogramming has emerged as crucial in the early host immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. In the present study, we sought to compare baseline metabolic characteristics and the glycolytic response to infection of human AM from smokers and nonsmokers. AM were obtained at bronchoscopy, and extracellular flux analyses were performed to determine baseline metabolic characteristics compared with human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Metabolic characterization of AM from smokers and nonsmokers was performed similarly. After infection with Mtb, differences in glycolytic response were measured by extracellular flux analyses and gene expression analyses and correlated with production of glycolysis-driven IL-1β and prostaglandin E2. Similar experiments were performed in cigarette smoke extract-treated MDM as an alternative model. At baseline, human AM from nonsmokers have a significantly lower extracellular acidification rate/oxygen consumption rate ratio than MDM (P < 0.05), but they retain substantial glycolytic reserve. Compared with nonsmokers' AM, smokers' AM demonstrate reduced metabolic activity, reduced glycolytic reserve (P = 0.051), and reduced spare respiratory capacity (P < 0.01). After infection with Mtb, smokers' AM have significantly reduced glycolytic response, as measured by extracellular flux analyses (P < 0.05) and glycolytic gene expression analyses. Cigarette smoke extract-treated MDM similarly demonstrate reduced metabolic activity and reserves, as well as impaired glycolytic response to infection. Human AM demonstrate metabolic plasticity that allows glycolytic reprogramming to occur after Mtb infection. In smokers, this metabolic reserve is significantly attenuated, with consequent impairment of the glycolytic response to infection.

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