|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Although often perceived as a leisurely activity, golf can be a demanding sport, which can result in injury, usually from overuse and sometimes from poor technique. The shoulder is a commonly affected site, with the lead shoulder, or the left shoulder in the right-handed golfer, particularly vulnerable to injury. A thorough understanding of the biomechanics of the golf swing is helpful in diagnosing and managing these injuries. Common shoulder problems affecting golfers include subacromial impingement, acromioclavicular arthrosis, rotator cuff tear, glenohumeral instability, and glenohumeral arthrosis. Although the majority of patients with these disorders will respond to nonsurgical treatment, including rest and a structured program of physical therapy, further benefits can be obtained with subtle modifications of the golf swing. Those golfers who fail to respond to nonsurgical management can often return to competitive play with appropriate surgical treatment.