Minimum 10-Year Follow-up of Arthroscopic Intra-articular Bankart Repair Using Bioabsorbable Tacks

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Abstract

Background:

There are few long-term studies evaluating functional outcomes and rates of arthrosis after arthroscopic Bankart repair with bioabsorbable tacks.

Purpose:

We evaluated the clinical and radiographic results of arthroscopic Bankart repair using intra-articular bioabsorbable tacks at a minimum of 10 years’ follow-up.

Study Design:

Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods:

Thirty-two consecutive patients were retrospectively identified. Twenty patients (63%) were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 13.5 years (range, 10.75-17.5 years) and average age of 43 years (range, 28-73 years). The surgical shoulder (SS) was compared with a healthy control shoulder (CS) in 15 of 20 patients. Outcome tools included the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI) and Disabilities of the Shoulder, Arm, and Hand (DASH). Blinded, independent evaluators performed physical examinations and reviewed radiographs.

Results:

Thirteen patients (65%) had stable shoulders, 5 of 7 (25%) failed by dislocation, and 2 of 7 (10%) failed by signs of anterior instability on examination. Three patients underwent revision stabilization surgery. Average time to failure was 4.2 years (range, 0.25-14.7 years). Average WOSI and DASH scores were 80% and 7.3, respectively. The CS faired better than SS in WOSI scores (97% vs 83%, respectively; P = .008), main DASH scores (0.39 vs 6.79, respectively; P = .024), and the DASH sports module (0.00 vs 10.94, respectively; P = .043). Patients lost 5.9° of passive forward flexion (P = .031) and 4.3° of passive external rotation (P = .001). Forty percent returned to their preoperative sports level. Higher grades of arthrosis were seen in the SS (20% absent, 40% mild, 25% moderate, and 15% severe) versus CS (P = .002).

Conclusion:

At long-term follow-up, 65% of patients treated with an arthroscopic Bankart repair using bioabsorbable tacks had a well-functioning, stable shoulder. Disability scores were greatest with sports; however, the majority of patients had wellpreserved ranges of motion and good functional WOSI scores. Despite this, 40% had evidence of moderate to severe glenohumeral arthrosis.

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