Recent investigations have described the structural and functional behavior of the anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee through pull-apart and isolated sectioning studies. However, the secondary stabilizing role of the ALL in the setting of a complete anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear has not been fully defined for common simulated clinical examinations, such as the pivot-shift, anterior drawer, and internal rotation tests.Hypothesis:
Combined sectioning of the ALL and ACL would lead to increased internal rotation and increased axial plane translation during a pivot-shift test when compared with isolated sectioning of the ACL.Study Design:
Controlled laboratory study.Methods:
Ten fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees were subjected to a simulated pivot-shift test with coupled 10-N·m valgus and 5-N·m internal rotation torques from 0° to 60° of knee flexion and a 5-N·m internal rotation torque and an 88-N anterior tibial load, both from 0° to 120° of knee flexion via a 6 degrees of freedom robotic system. Kinematic changes were measured and compared with the intact state for isolated sectioning of the ACL and combined sectioning of the ACL and ALL.Results:
Combined sectioning of the ACL and ALL resulted in a significant increase in axial plane tibial translation during a simulated pivot shift at 0°, 15°, 30°, and 60° of knee flexion and a significant increase in internal rotation at 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, 90°, 105°, and 120° when compared with the intact and ACL-deficient states. Based on the model results, ALL sectioning resulted in an additional 2.1 mm (95% CI, 1.4–2.9 mm; P<.001) of axial plane translation during the pivot shift when compared with ACL-only sectioning, when pooling evidence over all flexion angles. Likewise, when subjected to IR torque, the ACL+ALL-deficient state resulted in an additional 3.2° of internal rotation (95% CI, 2.4°-4.1°; P<.001) versus the intact state, and the additional sectioning of the ALL increased internal rotation by 2.7° (95% CI, 1.8°-3.6°; P<.001) versus the ACL-deficient state.Conclusion:
The results of this study confirm the ALL as an important lateral knee structure that provides rotatory stability to the knee. Specifically, the ALL was a significant secondary stabilizer throughout flexion during an applied internal rotation torque and simulated pivot-shift test in the context of an ACL-deficient knee.Clinical Relevance:
Residual internal rotation and a positive pivot shift after ACL reconstruction may be attributed to ALL injury. For these patients, surgical treatment of an ALL tear may be considered.