Clinical and Anatomic Predictors of Outcomes After the Latarjet Procedure for the Treatment of Anterior Glenohumeral Instability With Combined Glenoid and Humeral Bone Defects

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Abstract

Background:

The Latarjet procedure for the treatment of recurrent anterior shoulder instability is highly successful, but reasons for failure are often unclear. Measurements of the “glenoid track” have not previously been evaluated as potential predictors of postoperative stability.

Hypothesis:

There are clinical and anatomic characteristics, including the glenoid track, that are predictive of outcomes after the Latarjet procedure.

Study Design:

Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods:

Patients who underwent the Latarjet procedure for anterior shoulder instability with glenoid bone loss before October 2012 were assessed for eligibility. Patient-reported subjective data that were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed included demographic information, patient satisfaction, pain measured on a visual analog scale (VAS), questions regarding instability, Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) scores, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores, Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) scores, and Short Form-12 Physical Component Summary (SF-12 PCS) scores. Anatomic measurements were performed of the coracoid size (surface area and width), width of the conjoined tendon and subscapularis tendon, estimated glenoid defect surface area, Hill-Sachs interval (HSI), and projected postoperative glenoid track engagement. Failure was defined as the necessity for revision stabilization or continued instability (dislocation or subjective subluxation) at a minimum of 2 years postoperatively.

Results:

A total of 38 shoulders in 38 patients (33 men, 5 women) with a mean age of 26 years (range, 16-43 years) were included. The mean follow-up for 35 of 38 patients (92%) was 3.2 years (range, 2.0-7.9 years); 25 of 38 had undergone prior stabilization surgery, and 6 had workers' compensation claims. All mean subjective outcome scores significantly improved (P < .05), with a high median satisfaction score of 9 of 10. Eight patients had failures because of continued instability. Patients with moderate or higher preoperative pain scores (VAS ≥3) had a negative correlation with postoperative SF-12 PCS scores (ρ = 0.474, P = .022). Patients with outside-and-engaged (Out-E) or “off-track” lesions were 4.0 times more likely to experience postoperative instability (relative risk, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.32-12.2; P = .33). The width of patients' coracoid processes was also directly associated with postoperative stability (P = .014). Moreover, 50% (4/8) of failures demonstrated Out-E glenoid tracks (off-track lesions) versus 16% (4/25) of those without recurrent instability (P = .033). Five of 8 failures were considered as such because of subjective subluxation events, not frank dislocations. Four of the 6 patients with workers' compensation claims had failed results (P = .016).

Conclusion:

Workers' compensation claims were associated with continued instability, and patients with higher preoperative pain levels demonstrated lower SF-12 PCS scores postoperatively. The concept of the glenoid track may be predictive of stability after the Latarjet procedure and may be helpful in surgical decision making regarding the treatment of Hill-Sachs lesions at risk for persistent engagement. Although stability and patient satisfaction are high after the Latarjet procedure, subjective complaints of subluxation may be more common than previously estimated.

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