Outcomes of Anatomic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Bone-Quadriceps Tendon Graft Versus Double-Bundle Hamstring Tendon Graft

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Abstract

Background:

The choice of graft type is an important factor to the outcome of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.

Purpose:

To compare knee joint stability and functional outcomes of anatomic ACL reconstruction with double-bundle hamstring tendon (DBHT) and bone-quadriceps tendon (BQT) autografts.

Study Design:

Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods:

Ninety-six patients underwent ACL reconstruction with either DBHT (hamstring group) or BQT autograft (quadriceps group). Each group included 48 patients who were retrospectively matched on the basis of age, sex, and body mass index; there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups (all P > .05). All patients had a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Outcome evaluations included the manual laxity test, International Knee Documentation Committee subjective evaluation, Tegner activity score, modified Lysholm score, anterior knee pain questionnaire, KT-2000 arthrometer side-to-side difference, Cybex II isokinetic testing, and tunnel position evaluation by quadrant method.

Results:

Manual laxity test results were significantly improved in both groups after surgery (all P < .05). The maximum KT-2000 arthrometer side-to-side difference improved from 4.0 to 1.9 mm in the hamstring group and 3.9 to 2.1 mm in the quadriceps group (P = .65). Modified Lysholm scores in the hamstring and quadriceps groups improved from 69.4 and 70.2 to 88.4 and 92.1 (P = .30), and International Knee Documentation Committee subjective evaluation scores improved from 56.0 and 60.3 to 77.9 and 80.2 (P = .37), respectively. Tegner activity scores for the hamstring and quadriceps groups were 4.7 and 4.6 preoperatively and 4.6 and 4.7 (P = .80) at final follow-up, respectively. There were no between-group differences on postoperative anterior knee pain (P > .05 for all questionnaire categories), nor were there differences in recovered extensor muscle strength during isokinetic testing (82.9% vs 81.0% at 60 deg/s, P = .71; 85.1% vs 83.8% at 180 deg/s, P = .81). However, flexor muscle strength recovery was better in the quadriceps group (86.6% vs 92.2% at 60 deg/s, P = .22; 87.1% vs 99.6% at 180 deg/s, P = .01). There were no significant differences in tunnel positioning between the 2 groups (all P > .05).

Conclusion:

Anatomic ACL reconstruction with the BQT autograft showed similar knee stability and functional outcome scores when compared with the DBHT autograft. Additionally, better flexor muscle strength recovery was found in the quadriceps group, indicating a potential advantage of the BQT autograft in ACL reconstruction.

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