Results of Arthroscopic Bankart Repair for Anterior-Inferior Shoulder Instability at 13-Year Follow-up

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Abstract

Background:

Anterior-inferior shoulder instability is a common injury in young patients, particularly those practicing overhead-throwing sports. Long-term results after open procedures are well studied and evaluated. However, the long-term results after arthroscopic repair and risk factors of recurrence require further assessment.

Hypothesis:

Arthroscopic Bankart repair results are comparable with those of open repair as described in the literature.

Study Design:

Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods:

A total of 180 shoulders with anterior-inferior shoulder instability were stabilized arthroscopically, met the inclusion criteria and the patients were able to be contacted at a minimum of 10-year follow-up. Of these patients, 143 agreed to participate in the study. Assessment was performed clinically in 104 patients using the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, Constant score, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons score, Rowe score, and the Dawson 12-item questionnaire. The Samilson-Prieto score was used to assess degenerative arthropathy in radiographs available for 100 shoulders. Additionally, 15 patients participated through a specific questionnaire and 24 patients through a telephone survey.

Results:

The overall redislocation rate was 18.18%. Redislocation rates for the different types of fixation devices were as follows: FASTak/Bio-FASTak, 15.1% (17/112); SureTac, 26.3% (5/19); and Panalok, 33.3% (4/12). Concomitant superior labral anterior-posterior repair had no effect on clinical outcome. Redislocation rate was significantly affected by the patient’s age and duration of postoperative rehabilitation. Redislocation rate tended to be higher if there had been more than 1 dislocation preoperatively (P = .098). Severe dislocation arthropathy was observed in 12% of patients, and degenerative changes were significantly correlated with the number of preoperative dislocations, patient age, and number of anchors. The patient satisfaction rate was 92.3%, and return to the preinjury sport level was possible in 49.5%.

Conclusion:

Clinical outcome at a mean follow-up of 13 years after arthroscopic repair of anterior-inferior shoulder instability is comparable with the reported results of open Bankart repair in the literature and allows management of concomitant lesions arthroscopically. Modifiable risk factors of postoperative redislocation and arthropathy must be considered. Stabilization after the first-time dislocation achieves better clinical and radiological outcomes than after multiple dislocations.

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