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Recent animal studies have demonstrated that hyperlipidemia is associated with poor tendon-bone healing after rotator cuff repair; however, these findings have not been substantiated in human studies.To examine any association between hyperlipidemia and the failure of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair requiring revision surgery and to investigate whether the use of statin lipid-lowering agents had any influence on observed associations.Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.From a national insurance database, patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with perioperative lipid levels (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein [LDL], and triglycerides) recorded were reviewed. For each lipid test, patients were stratified into normal, moderate, and high groups based on published standards. For the total cholesterol and LDL cohorts, a subgroup analysis of patients stratified by statin use was performed. The primary outcome measure was ipsilateral revision rotator cuff surgery, including revision repair or debridement. A logistic regression analysis controlling for patient demographics and comorbidities was utilized for comparison.There were 30,638 patients included in the study. The rate of revision rotator cuff surgery was significantly increased in patients with moderate (odds ratio [OR], 1.20; 95% CI, 1.03-1.40; P = .022) and high total cholesterol levels (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.10-1.55; P = .006) compared with patients with normal total cholesterol levels perioperatively. Within each of these groups, patients without statin use had significantly higher rates of revision surgery, while those with statin prescriptions did not. The absolute risk reduction for statin use ranged from 0.24% to 1.87% when stratified by the total cholesterol level, yielding a number needed to treat from 54 to 408 patients. The rate of revision surgery was significantly increased in patients with moderate (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.10-1.41; P = .001) and high LDL levels (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.08-1.99; P = .014) compared with patients with normal LDL levels perioperatively. Again, patients without statin prescriptions had significantly increased rates of revision surgery, whereas patients with statin use did not. The absolute risk reduction for statin use ranged from 0.26% to 1.89% when stratified by the LDL level, yielding a number needed to treat from 53 to 387 patients. There were no significant differences in the rates of revision rotator cuff surgery between patients with moderate and high triglyceride levels compared with patients with normal triglyceride levels.The present study found a significant association between moderate and high perioperative total cholesterol and LDL levels and the rate of revision surgery after primary arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Furthermore, the use of statin agents appeared to mitigate the need for revision rotator cuff repair. Further prospective studies are necessary to validate these preliminary findings and determine if better perioperative lipid control can improve clinical outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.