Matrix-based cell therapy improves surgical handling, increases patient comfort, and allows for expanded indications with better reliability within the knee joint. Five-year efficacy and safety of autologous cultured chondrocytes on porcine collagen membrane (MACI) versus microfracture for treating cartilage defects have not yet been reported from any randomized controlled clinical trial.Purpose:
To examine the clinical efficacy and safety results at 5 years after treatment with MACI and compare these with the efficacy and safety of microfracture treatment for symptomatic cartilage defects of the knee.Study Design:
Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1.Methods:
This article describes the 5-year follow-up of the SUMMIT (Superiority of MACI Implant Versus Microfracture Treatment) clinical trial conducted at 14 study sites in Europe. All 144 patients who participated in SUMMIT were eligible to enroll; analyses of the 5-year data were performed with data from patients who signed informed consent and continued in the Extension study.Results:
Of the 144 patients randomized in the SUMMIT trial, 128 signed informed consent and continued observation in the Extension study: 65 MACI (90.3%) and 63 microfracture (87.5%). The improvements in Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) Pain and Function domains previously described were maintained over the 5-year follow-up. Five years after treatment, the improvement in MACI over microfracture in the co-primary endpoint of KOOS pain and function was maintained and was clinically and statistically significant (P = .022). Improvements in activities of daily living remained statistically significantly better (P = .007) in MACI patients, with quality of life and other symptoms remaining numerically higher in MACI patients but losing statistical significance relative to the results of the SUMMIT 2-year analysis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of structural repair was performed in 120 patients at year 5. As in the 2-year SUMMIT (MACI00206) results, the MRI evaluation showed improvement in defect filling for both treatments; however, no statistically significant differences were noted between treatment groups.Conclusion:
Symptomatic cartilage knee defects 3 cm2 or larger treated with MACI were clinically and statistically significantly improved at 5 years compared with microfracture treatment. No remarkable adverse events or safety issues were noted in this heterogeneous patient population.