Open Latarjet Procedures Produce Better Outcomes in Competitive Athletes Compared With Recreational Athletes: A Clinical Comparative Study of 106 Athletes Aged Under 30 Years

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Abstract

Background:

In cases of shoulder stabilization for anterior instability, the main goals of the surgery are a rapid and efficient return to sports and excellent long-term outcomes without recurrence of dislocation, particularly in young and competitive athletes.

Purpose:

To determine whether outcomes of open Latarjet procedure (OLPs) depend on the level of sports practiced by patients and to report clinical scores and complication rates for OLP at a minimum follow-up of 2 years.

Study Design:

Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods:

A retrospective comparative study was conducted for all patients who underwent OLP by the senior author (J.B.) between July 2007 and December 2012. The indication for OLP at the authors’ institution was a minimum of 2 episodes of dislocation and/or subluxation, a positive apprehension test result in the cocking position, an Instability Severity Index Score more than 2, and evidence of anterior instability lesions on computed tomography arthrograms. The 106 included patients (110 shoulders) with a mean follow-up of 46 months were compared in 2 groups depending on sport activities: 57 (54%) competitive athletes and 49 (46%) recreational athletes. The principal outcome measure was evidence of recurrent instability. The secondary outcome measures were clinical scores related to anterior instability and related to sport practice: Rowe score, Oxford Shoulder Instability Score (OSIS), Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index, and level of satisfaction.

Results:

Of the 106 patients, 3 reported recurrence of shoulder dislocation: 2 competitive athletes (3.5%; 95% CI, 0.9%-11.2%) and 1 recreational athlete (2%; 95% CI, 0.4%-10.7%) (P = .684). The persistent apprehension test result was positive in 7 competitive athletes (11.5%) and in 5 recreational athletes (10%) (P = .566). The Rowe scores improved from 56.3 ± 13.2 (range, 30-80) preoperatively to 84.2 ± 16.4 (range, 30-100) postoperatively in competitive athletes and from 55.0 ± 11.0 (range, 35-80) to 69.5 ± 22.0 (range, 15-100) in recreational athletes (P < .001). The net improvement in Rowe scores was significantly greater in competitive athletes (27.9 ± 21.7) compared with recreational athletes (14.5 ± 24.4) (P = .006). The scores unrelated to sport activity (Oxford Shoulder Instability Score and Simple Shoulder Test) were similar for the 2 groups. All 57 (100%) competitive athletes and 34 (69.4%) recreational athletes resumed their previous sports practice, at the same level or higher than before their injury (respectively, 78.9% and 42.9%; P = .004).

Conclusion:

The OLP could be considered for primary shoulder stabilization, particularly in competitive athletes, who have high functional demands and great risks of redislocation.

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