Return to Sport and Performance After Hip Arthroscopy for Femoroacetabular Impingement in 18- to 30-Year-Old Athletes: A Cross-sectional Cohort Study of 189 Athletes

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Abstract

Background:

A recent systematic review found that 87% of athletes return to sport after hip surgery for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome. However, the proportion of athletes returning to preinjury sport at their preinjury level of sport is less clear.

Purpose:

The main purpose of this study was to determine the rate of athletes returning to preinjury sport at preinjury level including their associated sports performance after hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome. Furthermore, self-reported hip and groin function was investigated.

Study Design:

Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods:

Eligible subjects were identified in the Danish Hip Arthroscopy Registry. A self-reported return to sport questionnaire was used to collect data after hip arthroscopy. If athletes reported they were engaged in preinjury sport at their preinjury level, the associated sports performance and participation were assessed as either (1) optimal sports performance including full sports participation; (2) impaired sports performance, but full sports participation; or (3) impaired sports performance including restricted sports participation. Self-reported hip and groin function was assessed for all athletes by use of the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score.

Results:

The study included 189 athletes (mean ± SD age at follow-up, 26.9 ± 3.4 years) at a mean ± SD follow-up of 33.1 ± 16.3 months after surgery. At follow-up, 108 athletes (57.1%) were playing preinjury sport at preinjury level, whereas the remaining 81 athletes (42.9%) failed to return to preinjury sport at preinjury level. Of the 108 athletes engaged in their preinjury sport at preinjury level at follow-up, 32 athletes (29.6%) reported optimal sports performance including full sports participation, corresponding to 16.9% of the study sample. Better self-reported hip and groin function was observed in athletes who were engaged in preinjury sport at preinjury level compared with athletes who were not.

Conclusion:

Fifty-seven percent of athletes returned to preinjury sport at their preinjury level. This is considerably lower than a previously reported return to sport rate of 87% and may reflect that the present study used a clear and strict definition of return to sport. Of note, only one-third of athletes who returned to preinjury sport at preinjury level reported their sports performance to be optimal, corresponding to 16.9% of the study sample. Better self-reported hip and groin function was observed in athletes who were playing preinjury sport at preinjury level compared with athletes who were not.

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