Bronchioloalveolar Adenocarcinoma of Lung: Monoclonal Origin for Multifocal Disease

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In an attempt to understand the histogenesis and molecular pathogenesis of multifocal bronchioloalveolar lung carcinoma (BAC) we studied 28 cases of BAC using a topographic genotyping approach for the presence of K-ras exon 1 mutations and p53 loss of heterozygosity (LOH). This analytical approach demonstrated K-ras exon 1 mutations in 12.5% of solitary BACs, 40% of BACs with microscopic or macroscopic satellite lesions, and 60% of BACs with intrathoracic metastases. In all cases with K-ras mutations, the identical point mutation was present in the primary, satellite, and intrathoracic metastatic lesions. When p53 LOH was demonstrated in the primary lesion, it was also detected in the satellites and intrathoracic metastases. No significant association was noted between the presence of K-ras mutations and p53 LOH. The results strongly support a monoclonal origin of multifocal BACs. Furthermore, the findings support the theories explaining the origin of multifocal BAC by intraalveolar route of spread, intrapulmonary lymphatic spread, or aerosolization leading to implantation at different sites. A trend toward an increased frequency of K-ras mutations and p53 LOH in BACs with satellites or metastases compared to solitary BACs was noted.

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