Core Biopsy of Vascular Neoplasms of the Breast: Pathologic Features, Imaging, and Clinical Findings

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Abstract

Vascular lesions (VLs) of the breast present a diagnostic challenge on breast core biopsy (BCBx). We report on 27 VLs presenting on BCBx. The mean patient age was 60 years, and mean size was 7.5 mm (range, 1.6 to 16 mm). Presentation included palpable mass in 6 (22%), incidental in 6 (22%), and an imaging abnormality in 15 (56%) cases. Imaging impression included hematoma (24%), lymph node (10%), fat necrosis (10%), tortuous vessel (5%), and not provided in 52%. The lesions were classified on the basis of BCBx or BCBx and excision (available in 16 pts) as follows: 1 low-grade angiosarcoma, 8 angiolipomas, 6 capillary hemangiomas, 4 cavernous hemangiomas, 2 hemangiomas (not otherwise specified), 1 papillary endothelial hyperplasia, and 5 perilobular hemangiomas. The angiosarcoma was 9 mm, detected incidentally by magnetic resonance imaging, and showed dissection of stromal collagen, infiltration of glands, high cellularity, moderate cytologic atypia, scant mitotic activity, and Ki-67 reactivity of 10%. Among the 26 benign VLs, worrisome histologic features were noted in 14 on BCBx, including anastomosing vascular channels in 9, moderate cytologic atypia in 4, high cellularity in 2, Ki-67>10% in 2, mitotic activity in 1, and infiltration of glands in 1. Of the 12 VLs without worrisome features, the lesion extended to edge of core in 8, precluding complete evaluation. BCBx of VLs presents diagnostic challenges due to overlapping clinicopathologic and radiologic features with low-grade angiosarcoma. If completeness of removal is documented on BCBx, and cytoarchitectural changes are not worrisome, follow-up could be considered rather than excision. However, only 4 of these cases fulfilled those criteria.

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