Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of Minor Salivary Glands With AKT1 p.Glu17Lys Mutation

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Abstract

The spectrum of low-grade intraductal papillary proliferations of the salivary glands is heterogenous, and reproducible morphologic diagnostic criteria have not yet been established. Recognized types are sialadenoma papilliferum, inverted ductal papilloma, and intraductal papilloma, but some lesions have been possibly included in the morphologic spectrum of cystadenoma or low-grade intraductal carcinomas. We herein present detailed morphologic, immunophenotypic, and genotypic features of 3 minor salivary gland neoplasms affecting 2 men (aged 65 and 71 y) and 1 woman (aged 78 y). They ranged in size from 1 to 2.5 cm. All tumors showed atypical papillary intraductal growth that presented either as uninodular/unicystic lesions (intraductal papilloma-like; n=2) or as a discontinuous growth along the ductal system in a manner similar to pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (n=1). Variable cytologic and architectural atypia was observed, ranging from bland intraductal papilloma-like features, to areas mimicking atypical ductal hyperplasia and low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. Amplicon-based massive parallel sequencing revealed an identical AKT1 p.Glu17Lys mutation in all 3 cases, but absence of concurring mutations in other genes of the RAS or PI3K pathway. This small series represents the first genetic study on salivary intraductal papillary neoplasms. Our cases showed significant variation in the degree of cytologic and architectural atypia, which overlaps with intraductal papillomas at the one end and with low-grade intraductal carcinoma at the other end of the spectrum, suggesting a disease continuum. As the full biological and morphologic characteristics of these ductal papillary lesions remain to be defined, the noncommitted term “intraductal papillary neoplasms” might be more appropriate. Our novel genetic findings mirror similar activating mutations of AKT1 and other PI3K pathway members in intraductal papillary lesions of the breast and anogenital glands.

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