Consistent Amplification of FRS2 and MDM2 in Low-grade Osteosarcoma: A Genetic Study of 22 Cases With Clinicopathologic Analysis

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Low-grade osteosarcoma (LGOS) encompasses low-grade central osteosarcoma (LGCOS) and parosteal osteosarcoma (POS). LGOSs are characterized by a supernumerary ring and giant rod chromosomes containing the 12q13-15 amplicon. The fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2 (FRS2) gene is located close to MDM2 and CDK4. Recent studies identified consistent amplification of FRS2 gene in atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma and dedifferentiated liposarcoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of FRS2 amplification and its relationship with the clinicopathologic features of LGOSs. The amplification of FRS2 and MDM2 genes were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization using 22 LGOSs (3 LGCOSs, 14 classic POSs, and 5 dedifferentiated POSs) and 85 control samples of bone and soft tissue. The clinicopathologic features of the 22 LGOSs were described. Amplification of FRS2 was detected in 21/22 (95%) of the LGOSs, including 3 (100%) LGCOSs and 18 (95%) POSs. All 22 LGOSs showed MDM2 amplification (100%). The only MDM2+/FRS2 LGOS was dedifferentiated POS (the dedifferentiated component was conventional osteosarcoma). In the control group, all of the atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma/dedifferentiated liposarcomas (DDLs) (10/10, 100%) were FRS2-amplified, whereas the remaining 75 control cases were FRS2-nonamplified. These findings indicate that the FRS2 gene is consistently amplified in classic and dedifferentiated LGOSs but not in their histologic mimics. These results offer another avenue for investigating the biology of LGOSs. Whether FRS2-nonamplified tumors exhibit unusual clinicopathologic features needs further investigation. Some so-called “high-grade osteosarcomas harboring 12q13-15 amplification” may be unrecognized dedifferentiated LGOSs.

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