Pyloric Gland Adenoma (PGA) of the Gallbladder: A Unique and Distinct Tumor from PGAs of the Stomach, Duodenum, and Pancreas

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Abstract

Twenty-four surgically resected, gallbladder pyloric gland adenomas (GB-PGAs) were examined and their features were compared with the reported features of stomach, duodenum, and pancreatic PGAs to better understand GB-PGAs. Clinical information on background gallbladder lesions and histologic data, including tumor grade, existence of squamoid morules, intratumoral cholesterosis, and intracytoplasmic mucins were collected. Immunohistochemical staining for MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, CDX2, pepsinogen I, p53, and MIB-1/nuclear β-catenin were evaluated. Targeted mutational analyses of KRAS exon2, GNAS exon 7, and CTNNB1 exon 3 were conducted. We found that 29.2% of the GB-PGAs were histologically high-grade dysplasias/carcinomas; 70.8% were low grade; and 20.8% and 33.3% contained squamoid morules and intratumoral cholesterosis, respectively. In addition, 45.8% and 54.2% of GB-PGAs were mucin-rich and mucin-poor types, respectively. Immunohistochemically, MUC6 was diffusely positive in all GB-PGAs; MUC2, MUC5AC, and CDX2 were only focally positive, and no pepsinogen-I positive cells were observed. Nuclear β-catenin accumulation was observed in all cases; however, the ratio varied among cases. Mucin-poor types were significantly associated with high histologic grade dysplasias/carcinomas and high nuclear β-catenin labeling indices. Mutational analyses identified CTNNB1 mutations in 100% of GB-PGAs (21/21), KRAS in 4.2% (1/23), and GNAS in 0% (0/22). The present study clarified the unique histologic features, phenotypic differentiation, and molecular statuses frequently associated with GB-PGAs. Altogether, our data suggest that tumorigenesis of GB-PGA is distinct from that of stomach, duodenum, and pancreatic PGAs.

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