Attenuated Metoclopramide-Induced Vascular Hyperreactivity to Cold Stress in Athletic Subjects

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We have previously reported a metoclopramide-induced vascular hyperreactivity to the cold pressor test (CPT) in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. The present study was designed to determine whether the state of physical training influences the cardiovascular responses to the CPT in normotensive subjects under metoclopramide (MTC) treatment. In 20 untrained subjects and 32 athletes (football players and runners), the blood pressure and heart rate responses to the CPT were studied after a 30-minute infusion of MTC (7.5 μg/kg per minute) and two placebo periods, before and after MTC, with 5% glucose solution. Under placebo conditions, the CPT produced significant increases of systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the untrained subjects and the runners, but not in the football players (17.2, 17.8, and 6.5 mm Hg for untrained subjects, runners, and football players, respectively). The runners responded with a lesser increase in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) during the CPT than did the others (15.8,17.9, and 18.2 mm Hg for runners, untrained subjects, and football players, respectively). In the presence of MTC, the CPT induced a larger increase in blood pressure (SBP/DBP) in the untrained subjects (21.4/24.1 mm Hg) than in the football players (10/18.7 mm Hg) and runners (18.7/13.9 mm Hg). MTC diminished the hyperreactivity responses to the CPT in the trained subjects (41 and 56% for football players and runners, respectively). Our conclusions are as follows: (1) Vascular responses to cold stress are attenuated in athletic subjects compared with untrained subjects. (2) The metoclopramide-induced vascular hyperreactivity, formerly reported for normotensive and hypertensive subjects, seems to be absent in trained subjects. (3) It is suggested that a probable dopaminergic system adaptation occurs during exercise.

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