Idiopathic Nonviral Cryoglobulinemia Treated Successfully With Rituximab

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Cryoglobulinemia is a systemic inflammatory syndrome that generally involves small-to-medium vessel vasculitis due to cryoglobulin-containing immune complexes. The therapeutic management of idiopathic cryoglobulinemic vasculitis has yet to be defined because no study has evaluated the best strategies. However, treatment of severe vasculitis is traditionally based on a combination of corticosteroids and immunosuppressants or plasmapheresis, and more recently rituximab. We report a case of 77-year-old female patient diagnosed with idiopathic cryoglobulinemia, treated successfully with 6 months prednisone tapering and 2 doses of rituximab (1 g each dose). After receiving the above-mentioned treatment, her creatinine went back to normal with resolution of proteinuria and hematuria, normalization of serum complements, and significant improvement in her clinical picture. We conclude that rituximab could be an effective treatment for idiopathic cryoglobulnemia.

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