The PARADIGM-HF (Prospective comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure) trial was a double-blind trial that randomized 8442 patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) to receive twice daily dosing of either 200 mg of LCZ696 or 10 mg of enalapril in addition to standard medical therapy for HF.Areas of Uncertainty:
Limitations of this trial include (1) sacubitril has not been tested by itself in the treatment of HFrEF; (2) the maximum recommended dose of valsartan for the treatment of HFrEF was used in this trial, but the maximum recommended dose of enalapril for the treatment of HFrEF was not used; (3) a run-in phase was used in this trial to test the tolerability of LCZ696, and patients who had adverse effects in this period were excluded from randomization; (4) the percent of blacks enrolled in this trial was only 5%; (5) LCZ696 caused a 14% incidence of hypotension; (6) neprilysin inhibition might favor the development of Alzheimer dementia, which was not assessed in the PARADIGM-HF trial; (7) patients with severe symptomatic HF were underrepresented in this trial; (8) major exclusions from this trial included an acute coronary event in the last 3 months, severe pulmonary disease, hepatic impairment, and an estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL per minute per 1.73 m2.Data Sources:
Review of the PARADIGM-HF trial.Results:
At 27-month follow-up, the PARADIGM-HF trial showed that compared with enalapril, LCZ696 reduced the composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for HF 20% (absolute risk reduction 4.7%, P < 0.001).Conclusions:
The numerous limitations discussed under the areas of uncertainty should be considered when prescribing LCZ696 for the treatment of HFrEF.