Leptin, an adipose-secreted hormone, links metabolism and immunity. Our aim was to determine whether leptin affects the alloimmune response. We used an allogeneic skin transplant model as a means to analyze the allograft immune response in Lepob/ob and wild-type mice. Leptin deficiency results in an increased frequency of Treg and Th2 cells and a prolonged graft survival. These effects of leptin deficiency indicate the importance of leptin and obesity in modulating the allograft immune responses. Our data suggest a possible explanation for the increased susceptibility of hyperleptinemic obese patients to acute and chronic graft rejection.