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Invasive mold infections (IMIs) are a major source of morbidity and mortality among lung transplant recipients (LTRs), yet information regarding the epidemiology of IMI in this population is limited. From 2001 to 2006, multicenter prospective surveillance for IMIs among LTR was conducted by the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network. The epidemiology of IMI among all LTRs in the cohort is reported. Twelve percent (143/1173) of LTRs under surveillance at 15 US centers developed IMI infections. The 12-month cumulative incidence of IMIs was 5.5%; 3-month all-cause mortality was 21.7%. Aspergillus caused the majority (72.7%)of IMIs; non-Aspergillus infections (39, 27.3%) included Scedosporium (5, 3.5%), mucormycosis (3, 2.1%) and “unspecified” or “other” mold infections (31, 21.7%). Late-onset IMI was common: 52% occurred within 1 year posttransplant (median 11 months, range 0–162 months). IMIs are common late-onset complications with substantial mortality in LTRs. LTRs should be monitored for late-onset IMIs and prophylactic agents should be optimized based on likely pathogen.The authors characterize the national epidemiology of invasive mold infections among lung transplant recipients, showing a high rate of late-onset invasive mold infections associated with substantial mortality.