Protein Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis Identifies Genetic Variation in the Innate Immune RegulatorTOLLIPin Post–Lung Transplant Primary Graft Dysfunction Risk

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The authors previously identified plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) level as a quantitative lung injury biomarker in primary graft dysfunction (PGD). They hypothesized that plasma levels of PAI-1 used as a quantitative trait could facilitate discovery of genetic loci important in PGD pathogenesis. A two-stage cohort study was performed. In stage 1, they tested associations of loci with PAI-1 plasma level using linear modeling. Genotyping was performed using the Illumina CVD Bead Chip v2. Loci meeting a p < 5 × 10−4 cutoff were carried forward and tested in stage 2 for association with PGD. Two hundred ninety-seven enrollees were evaluated in stage 1. Six loci, associated with PAI-1, were carried forward to stage 2 and evaluated in 728 patients. rs3168046 (Toll interacting protein [TOLLIP]) was significantly associated with PGD (p = 0.006). The increased risk of PGD for carrying at least one copy of this variant was 11.7% (95% confidence interval 4.9–18.5%). The false-positive rate for individuals with this genotype who did not have PGD was 6.1%. Variants in theTOLLIPgene are associated with higher circulating PAI-1 plasma levels and validate for association with clinical PGD. A protein quantitative trait analysis for PGD risk prioritizes genetic variations inTOLLIPand supports a role for Toll-like receptors in PGD pathogenesis.

Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 quantitative trait analysis prioritizes genetic variations in TOLLIP for posttransplant primary graft dysfunction and supports a role for Toll-like receptors in primary graft dysfunction pathogenesis.

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