In order to investigate the hypothesis that the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus (EVR) shows anticytomegalovirus (CMV) activity in pediatric patients, we analyzed the impact of EVR-based immunosuppressive therapy on CMV replication and disease in a large cohort (n = 301) of pediatric kidney allograft recipients. The EVR cohort (n = 59), who also received low-dose cyclosporin, was compared with a control cohort (n = 242), who was administered standard-dose cyclosporin or tacrolimus and an antimetabolite, mostly mycophenolate mofetil (91.7%). Multivariate analysis revealed an 83% lower risk of CMV replication in the EVR cohort than in the control cohort (p = 0.005). In CMV high-risk (donor+/recipient−) patients (n = 88), the EVR-based regimen was associated with a significantly lower rate of CMV disease (0% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.046) than the standard regimen. In patients who had received chemoprophylaxis with (val-)ganciclovir (n = 63), the CMV-free survival rates at 1 year and 3 years posttransplant (100%) were significantly (p = 0.015) higher in the EVR cohort (n = 15) than in the control cohort (n = 48; 1 year, 75.0%; 3 years, 63.3%). Our data suggest that in pediatric patients at high risk of CMV, an EVR-based immunosuppressive regimen is associated with a lower risk of CMV disease than a standard-dose calcineurin inhibitor–based regimen.
This study in 301 pediatric kidney transplant recipients of the Cooperative European Paediatric Renal Transplant Initiative Registry associates the use of everolimus and low-dose cyclosporine with a lower incidence of cytomegalovirus infection compared to a standard-dose calcineurin inhibitor-based regimen in patients at high risk of cytomegalovirus infection.