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We hypothesized thatde novodonor-specific antibody (DSA) causes complement-dependent endothelial cell injury in kidney transplants, as assessed by expression of endothelial cell–associated transcripts (ENDATs), that may be attenuated through complement inhibition. In total, 15 participants (five control, 10 treatment) with DSA and deteriorating renal function were enrolled. The treatment group received 6 mo of eculizumab followed by 6 mo of observation, whereas controls were observed. The primary end point was percentage change in estimated GFR (eGFR) trajectory over the treatment period. The treatment group had an improved eGFR trajectory versus control, based on our predetermined two-sided 0.10 significance level (p = 0.09). Within-subject analysis of treated participants at 6-mo intervals did not show significant change (p = 0.60). Modeling C1q status showed that C1q-positive patients had significantly higher mean eGFR than patients with negative C1q (p = 0.04). Biopsies revealed elevated renal ENDATs in most participants, but ENDATs were not reduced with complement inhibition. Our data suggest that eculizumab treatment may stabilize kidney function in patients with chronic persistent DSA based on our pilota priorisignificance threshold. ENDAT expression predicative of acute humoral injury is not reduced with complement inhibition in this chronic setting. Further studies will be necessary to determine which patients may benefit from eculizumab.Preliminary evidence suggests an association between terminal complement inhibition and stabilization of renal function in kidney transplant recipients who have deteriorating glomerular filtration caused by chronic, persistent donor-specific antibody.