Successful Recovery of Acute Renal Transplant Failure in Recurrent Hepatitis C Virus–Associated Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis

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Recurrence of hepatitis C virus (HCV)–associated membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) in the kidney transplant may lead to continuous graft deterioration and the need for further renal replacement therapy. The novel direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) allow a highly effective and interferon-free treatment option for chronic HCV-infected patients. Data on the therapeutic safety and efficacy in HCV-infected renal transplant patients are sparse, especially for patients with severe renal impairment. We report the case of a 63-year-old female HCV-positive renal transplant patient with biopsy-proven recurrence of MPGN in the renal graft 3 years after transplant. Because of rapid loss of transplant function and consecutive need for hemodialysis, we initiated a combined anti-HCV–directed therapy regimen consisting of daclatasvir and simeprevir over 12 weeks. Viral clearance of HCV was obtained as early as 2 weeks after start of treatment. No adverse therapy-associated side effects were observed, and immunosuppressive dosing remained unchanged. Importantly, graft function fully recovered and hemodialysis was stopped 2 mo after the end of daclatasvir/simeprevir treatment. We report the first case of successful recovery of dialysis-dependent renal transplant failure after treatment of recurrent HCV-associated MPGN in a kidney transplant recipient by curing the underlying HCV infection with a combination of novel DAAs.

The authors present a report of a 63-year-old woman who had acute renal transplant failure requiring hemodialysis because of recurrence of hepatitis C–associated membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, which was treated with a combination of new direct-acting antivirals that led to complete recovery of renal function.

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