Detection of New Human Metabolic Urinary Markers in Chronic Alcoholism and Their Reversal by Aqueous Extract of Tinospora cordifolia Stem

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Abstract

Aims: We have studied urine metabolic signature of chronic alcoholism (CA) before and after treatment with an Ayurvedic drug Tinospora cordifolia aqueous extract (TCE).

Methods: Urinary metabolites of chronic alcoholics and apparently healthy subjects were profiled using HPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Discrimination models from the initial data sets were able to correctly assign the unknown samples to the CA, treated or healthy groups in validation sets with r2 > 0.98.

Results: Metabolic signature in CA patients include changed tryptophan, fatty acids and pyrimidines metabolism. Several novel biomarkers of alcoholism were observed in urine for the first time which includes, 5-hydroxyindole, phenylacetic acid, picolinic acid, quinaldic acid, histidine, cystathionine, riboflavin, tetrahydrobiopterin and chenodeoxyglycocholic acid, in addition to previously reported biomarkers. Treatment of CA with TCE reverted the levels of most of the biomarkers except tetrahydrobiopterin levels.

Conclusions: These results suggested that the measurement of these urine metabolites could be used as a non-invasive diagnostic method for the detection of CA. As TCE treatment significantly reversed the affected pathways without any side effect. Overall, the present data depicts that TCE may be used either alone or adjunct in reducing alcohol-induced disorders.

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